Relación entre la antigüedad de la microempresa y su rentabilidad financiera: un análisis por conglomerados

Relationship between the age of the microenterprise and its financial profitability: A cluster analysis

Hugo Renán Ruiz López , Fernando José Zambrano Farías , María Estefanía Sánchez Pacheco y Sara Rocío Correa Soto

Suma de Negocios, 14(31), 136-143, julio-diciembre 2023, ISSN 2215-910X

https://doi.org/10.14349/sumneg/2023.V14.N31.A5

Recibido el 22 de agosto de 2023
Aceptado el 19 de octubre de 2023
Online el 3 de noviembre de 2023

Resumen

Introducción/Objetivo: el estudio examinó la relación entre la rentabilidad y la antigüedad de microempresas en Ecuador en el 2021.

Metodología: para analizar la relación entre las variables de estudio, rentabilidad y antigüedad, se utilizó un enfoque cuantitativo de tipo descriptivo con datos de corte transversal. Se aplicó una técnica de aprendizaje no supervisado llamada ‘clúster’ en una muestra de 1810 microempresas ecuatorianas que tienen registrados sus estados financieros ante la Superintendencia de Compañías, Valores y Seguros en el periodo de estudio.

Resultados: los resultados indicaron una relación inversa débil entre rentabilidad y antigüedad, y se identificaron tres grupos mediante la técnica de K-medoides. Dos grupos compartieron una antigüedad media de 9 años, pero difieren significativamente en cuanto a rentabilidad, con un promedio del 1 % y 55 %, respectivamente. El tercer clúster, compuesto por microempresas más antiguas con un promedio de 32 años, registró una rentabilidad promedio del 2 %.

Conclusiones: se concluye que la rentabilidad disminuye con el aumento de la antigüedad de las microempresas, tema que resulta de interés para la toma de decisiones de empresas en etapa de maduración, porque pueden cambiar sus expectativas de la rentabilidad deseada y del nivel de estrategias empleadas por estas empresas para alcanzar lo esperado.


Palabras clave:
Antigüedad,
clúster,
microempresas,
rentabilidad,
Provincia del Guayas,
Ecuador.

Códigos JEL:
M11, M13, G21, C81

Abstract

Introduction/Purpose: This study examined the relationship between profitability and the age of microenterprises in Ecuador in the year 2021.

Methodology: The relationship between the profitability and age variables was measured through a quantitative descriptive approach with cross-sectional data. An unsupervised learning technique called clustering was applied to a sample of 1,810 Ecuadorian microenterprises that have their financial statements registered with the Superintendency of Companies, Securities and Insurance during the study period.

Findings: The results indicated a weak inverse relationship between profitability and age, and three clusters were identified using the K-medoids technique. Two clusters shared an average age of 9 years, but differed significantly in terms of profitability, averaging 1% and 55% respectively. The third cluster, composed of older micro-enterprises with an average age of 32 years, recorded an average profitability of 2%.

Conclusions: It is concluded that profitability decreases with increasing age of the microenterprises, which is of interest for decision making in maturing enterprises because their expectations of the desired profitability and the level of strategies used by these companies may change.


Keywords:
Age,
cluster,
microenterprises,
profitability,
Provincia del Guayas,
Ecuador.

Artículo Completo
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Universidad Internacional del Ecuador UIDE, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Universidad de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador
Life College International, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
Copyright © 2023. Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz, Colombia

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