Innovación en tiempos de incertidumbre: visión y direccionalidad en sistemas de innovación

Innovation in uncertain times: Vision and directionality for innovation systems

Oscar Burbano-Figueroa

Suma de Negocios, 14(30), 78-94, enero-junio 2023, ISSN 2215-910X

https://doi.org/10.14349/sumneg/2023.V14.N30.A8

Recibido el 14 de marzo de 2023
Aceptado el 27 de abril de 2023
Online el 26 de mayo de 2023

Resumen

Introducción/objetivo: la sociedad requiere que los esfuerzos en CTI no sólo apunten al crecimiento económico, sino que promuevan la conservación del medio ambiente y la justicia social (la transformación hacia la sostenibilidad). En este sentido, se requiere la construcción de sistemas de innovación orientados a la sostenibilidad (SIS); es decir, que tengan la capacidad de direccionar la transformación de los sistemas sociotécnicos. Este artículo de perspectiva desarrolla una aproximación teórico-práctica para la implementación de sistemas de innovación que incluya las dimensiones de normatividad (direccionalidad) y exploración, que son necesarias para operar tales procesos de transformación.

Metodología: el análisis de sistemas y el análisis de decisiones fueron usados como estructura para organizar conceptos y métodos de diferentes corrientes de pensamiento, los cuales fueron sintetizados en este trabajo con el propósito funcional de desarrollar una herramienta en capacidad de proveer a los sistemas de innovación de las dimensiones de normatividad y exploración.

Resultados: cuando hablamos de desarrollo sostenible y usamos el concepto de sostenibilidad estamos necesariamente dando una direccionalidad a los sistemas de innovación. Operacionalizar esta función requiere conjugar un análisis normativo —orientado a construir una visión de un futuro sostenible para los actores participantes en el sistema de innovación—, y un análisis exploratorio enfocado en identificar las rutas de transformación con mayor potencial de alcanzar el futuro deseado. Este enfoque metodológico, construido a partir de varias aproximaciones empíricas, es aquí denominado análisis integrado de futuros.

Conclusión: este trabajo describe una perspectiva sintética y pragmática para la implementación de SIS. Esta perspectiva es una guia para equipos consultores en su tarea de apoyar a actores y tomadores de decisión en el proceso de formalización/fortalecimiento de estos sistemas, y en la identificación e implementación de los cursos de acción más apropiados para su implementación.


Palabras clave:
Análisis de futuros,
análisis normativo,
análisis exploratorio,
sostenibilidad,
innovación,
sistemas de innovación,
economía evolutiva.

Códigos JEL:
Q18, O32, Q57, D63

Abstract

Introduction: In contemporary society, there is a growing expectation for STI efforts to go beyond economic growth and actively contribute to environmental protection and social justice (transformation towards sustainability). To meet this demand, it is necessary to construct innovation systems that are specifically oriented towards sustainability, facilitating the transformation of sociotechnical systems. This perspective article presents a comprehensive framework that combines theoretical and practical perspectives for implementing innovation systems, incorporating the essential elements of normativity (directionality) and exploration required to drive such transformative processes.

Methodology: We formulated a methodological approach that provides innovation systems with normative and exploratory dimensions by synthesizing concepts and methods from several schools of thought, using Systems Analysis and Decision Analysis as conceptual frameworks.

Results: Within the context of sustainable development, the principles of sustainability serve as the guiding framework for innovation systems. To successfully implement this approach, it is crucial to integrate both normative analysis, which emphasizes the construction of a shared vision among stakeholders within the innovation system, and exploratory analysis, which aims to identify the most viable transformation pathways for realizing the desired future. Our proposed methodological perspective, referred to as Integrated Futures Analysis, is a step-by-step generalization built upon a synthesis of empirical approaches that combines normative and exploratory analysis. This approach aims to facilitate the understanding and implementation of sustainability-oriented innovation systems.

Conclusion: In this article, a synthetic and pragmatic approach to implementing sustainability-oriented innovation systems (SIS) was introduced. The perspective outlined in this article can be effectively employed by consultant teams to aid stakeholders and decision-makers in formalizing and enhancing SIS. Additionally, it helps in identifying the most appropriate actions and methods for implementation of SIS.


Keywords:
Futures analysis,
normative analysis,
exploratory analysis,
sustainability, innovation,
innovation systems,
evolutionary economics.

Artículo Completo
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